Taking advantage of a rare chance alignment of eight Earth-orbiting spacecraft, space physicists have pinned down where and how the energy of the solar wind can surge Earthward to power the celestial light of the auroras and help fire up the Van Allen radiation belts. Researchers knew that the magnetosphere—Earth’s magnetic bubble of plasma—gets its energy from solar wind, which blows the plasma into its teardrop shape and stores energy by stretching and compressing the magnetosphere’s magnetic field lines (blue). These stressed magnetic field lines can merge, or reconnect, at a point about halfway between Earth and the orbit of the moon. But, contrary to expectations, the stored energy is not just released where reconnection occurs, researchers report online today in Science. Instead, energy is released at a magnetically intense “front” as reconnection slings the front toward Earth at almost 1.5 million kilometers per hour (and sends another front toward deep space). The passage of a front heats the plasma (yellow zone) and sends charged particles flying toward Earth (red arrow), where the onslaught powers both radiation belts and aurora.See more ScienceShots.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)
Individual news stories are posted on the APRN news page. You can subscribe to APRN’s newsfeeds via email, podcast and RSS. Follow us on Facebook at alaskapublic.org and on Twitter @aprn.Download AudioFunny River Fire Burns More than 158,000 AcresShady Grove Oliver, KBBI – HomerThe Funny River Fire continued to burn the central Kenai Peninsula this week. As of Monday afternoon, it’s estimated to have burned more than 158,000 acres with 30% containment. On Sunday afternoon, Funny River Road from Mile 7 to the end of the road was evacuated. The Kenai Keys area also was put on evacuation alert.Anchorage Air Quality Affected by Funny River FireLori Townsend, APRN – AnchorageSmoke from the Kenai Peninsula wildfire drifted into Anchorage and Eagle River this weekend. The Anchorage Municipal air quality hot line reported Monday afternoon that conditions in Anchorage are considered moderate, but for Eagle River residents, the index is 110, which means the air quality is unhealthy for sensitive groups. Providence Hospital pulmunologist Dr. Mark Martynowicz said people with sensitive respiratory systems should be cautious about spending time outdoors.Tyonek Fire Almost ContainedLori Townsend, APRN – AnchorageThe Tyonek Fire, which started a week ago Monday, is currently burning at just over 1,900 acres. The blaze is between the villages of Tyonek and Beluga. State fire information officer Sam Harrel said the fire is considered to be 70% contained with full containment expected by Wednesday.China Lifts Ban on AK ShellfishThe Associated PressChina has lifted a five month-long ban on live shellfish from U.S. West Coast waters. U.S. Rep. Derek Kilmer (D-WA) released a statement Friday saying the ban had been lifted. The ban had particularly affected the Washington and Alaska shellfish industry.Feds Updating Development Scenarios for ChukchiLori Townsend, APRN – AnchorageThe federal government on Friday released a status update on the court ordered revision of an Environmental Impact Statement for Lease Sale 193 in the Chukchi Sea. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals found in an April ruling that the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) had underestimated how much oil may be recoverable in Arctic Ocean development.New Fisheries Might Be Headed to UnalaskaLauren Rosenthal, KUCB – UnalaskaNext year will likely bring new fisheries to the western Aleutian Islands, now that the National Marine Fisheries Service has issued its final report on the way commercial fishing affects an endangered population of Steller sea lions.Label Certifies Much of AK SalmonMike Mason, KDLG – DillinghamThe leading global seafood sustainability label currently certifies much of Alaska’s salmon harvest as sustainable. But only a few companies can use the label.StoryCorps: Paratrooper Justin Hayward ConnaherStoryCorps traveled to Alaska in February to record the voices of our service men and women. At five, Justin Hayward Connaher knew he was going to be a paratrooper. At 38, he considers himself a survivor. As part of StoryCorps at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, Justin spoke with his friend John Pennell about one of his earliest jumps.
Related posts:El dilema of gender confusion in Spanish Who’s on first? Misadventures in language-land The amazing true story of ‘tuanis’ and ‘brete’ – words to be thankful for The real secret of the world’s happiest country: grapes and MacGyver Back in the days when many people outside of Latin America thought that all the region had to offer was tacos, Chiquita Banana, and Desi Arnaz, Spanish students learned there were four ways to say “you”: the singular and plural informal forms,tú and vosotros, normally used when speaking to close friends, relatives, children, and animals; and the singular and plural formal forms, usted and ustedes, used to express respect. These were the only forms students learned, and al diablo with the barbarians south of the border.Nowadays, attitudes have changed, and in any given Spanish class, the Latin American forms are the norm.Why all this confusion over what, to us (at least, nowadays), is just one simple word? Let’s look a bit at the history of “you” in Spanish.Tú is a direct descendent of the Latin singular informal form tu, and up until the middle ages, the Latin plural form vos was the only word for the plural “you.” Then it came to be used in a formal singular sense as well. Therefore, to distinguish between something like “you, respected person” and the plural “you,” the Spaniards added otros (others) to vos, rendering vosotros, “you others” – much like the southern “you all” or our ubiquitous “you guys.”At this point, then, there existed three forms of “you” in Spanish: tú (singular informal), vos (singular formal) and vosotros (a general plural).In 16th-century Spain, matters became further complicated. In place of vos, there came into being an even more polite form of address, vuestra merced(your mercy), used with the third person of the verb, much as we might say, “How is his majesty today?” or “Does your honor wish to speak?”Over time, this form became usted and the plural form became ustedes.With this new polite form, vos, the former polite singular, lost prestige and became yet another informal singular form, while vosotros stayed on as the informal plural.Over more time, Spaniards stopped using the redundant vos, and stuck with tú. Thus, Castilian, or standard Spanish, ended up with four forms: tú, vosotros, usted and ustedes.Tú and vosotros use their own second person verb forms, while usted and ustedes share the third-person forms with “he,”“she” and “they.”Since all of Spanish-speaking America uses ustedes for both the familiar plural and the polite plural, Spanish teachers and grammar books now teach and practice in the classroom that there are three forms of “you” in Spanish: tú, usted and ustedes. They add as a side note, of course, that vosotros exists in Spain.Well and good, we’re back to three forms. If you recently took a Spanish course back home and you’re in Costa Rica now, you should be on target, right? Wrong. As it turns out, Spanish courses are targeted at Mexican Spanish, and we have a couple of hitches in the words for “you” in Costa Rica.In the first place, Ticos don’t generally use the tú form at all among themselves, but will often use it with foreign friends because they expect it.So what do they use with their friends and family? The answer to that question depends on the Tico to whom you put the question.Everybody, of course, uses ustedes for the plural “you.” The singular is another matter. Many simply use usted all the time, while others use usted or vos.This brings us to the second hitch: some use two forms of the singular “you,” depending on whom they are addressing: usted and vos.Moreover, Costa Rica is not the only country to use vos. Much of Central America, parts of Colombia and most notably Argentina, among others, also use it.Mexico and Peru, however, do not.Why is this? And what exactly is the vos form, anyway? I’ll explain all this in a future column. Meanwhile, I suggest you stick with the old, reliable usted until you get a handle on this thing.The original version of this piece was published on September 9, 2007. Facebook Comments